Direct flame processing
When roasting coffee, the beans are subjected to temperatures of 200 – 220°C while being shaken.
In essence, there are two roasting methods: “on a flowing bed” in which the raw beans are blasted with jets of hot air at temperatures between 300 ° C and 400 ° C for a few minutes, remaining suspended in the roasting chamber (hence the name of the process); and “rotating drum“, which employs a metal drum with fins inside to turn the product continuously and even out the roasting, and a gas burner which conveys the hot air necessary for the process, for a period of about 15-20 minutes depending on the type of coffee, the size of the drum, and the taste of the roaster.
While in the first system the coffee is roasted much more externally than internally, bringing with it taste and preparation anomalies, the second method clearly improves the aromatic yield of the coffee by making the roasting uniform.
Opening a bean along its light groove is enough to see the inside and understand the goodness, or otherwise, of the roasting process its undergone.
The coffee blend
The ideal blend should consist of 250 g of Puerto Rico, 100 of Santo Domingo and 150 of Moka. Even 300 g of Puerto Rico with 200 of mocha would give an excellent result.
With 15 g of this powder you can make a generous cup of coffee; but when there are several, 10 g each may suffice for a usual small cup.
The finest coffee in the world, Kopi Luwak, is produced in Indonesia.
Production is of the order of 50 kg per year and costs approximately 500 euros per kilo.
The proponents of the Cup of Excellence, a jury that assigns the Oscars of coffee, evaluate those parameters considered fundamental, including aroma, sweetness, flavour, acidity, lack of defects, and aftertaste.
In general, quality is related to the growing environment, the practices used in cultivation, the type of processing of the beans (the degree and their homogeneity) and to the place of origin.